Graduate of Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, USA (diploma magna cum laude, 1965, specialty "British History"). Ph. D. in British History (University of Chicago, 1972). Improved his qualifications at Darwin College (University of Cambridge, 1969–1970, 1976), and was a visiting fellow for one year at Harvard University (1984).
Twice was a Fulbright Scholar. First at the University of Tokyo and at International Christian University Tokyo (Japan, 1999–2000). Second at St. Petersburg University (Russia, 2004–2005). Author of eight books and numerous articles.